Follow by Email
Facebook
Facebook

8 October 2020 – International Podiatry Day

International Podiatry Day

Corporates

Corporates

Latest news on COVID-19

Latest news on COVID-19

search

an introduction to varieties of capitalism summary

The Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) has become the dominant approach in comparative political economy and enjoys wide application and attention in disciplines outside of political science and sociology. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Varieties of Comparing Advanced Capitalisms *Hall, Peter A. and David W. Soskice. This impending sense that the nation-state is somehow in “crisis” led to analyze the question of “the contemporary crisis of the nation-state?” (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. 5 Firms and the Welfare State: When, Why, and How Does Social Policy Matter to Employers? Varieties of Capitalism and Institutional Complementarities in The young man wakes up and it turns out to be his dream. It sets out the different types of capitalism that exist in the developed world today - from the US style on one hand, i.e. As the investment of money to make more money, capitalism has long existed but it was when production was financed in this way that a transformative capitalism came into being. 5 Those efforts have been limited partly because we do not yet have good Western Michigan University, 2012 . To comment, please email Ms. Bethany Webster at b.webster@gcsp, An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism (Peter Hall), Abstract: This chapter outlines the theoretical perspective behind a ‘varieties of capitalism' approach to comparative political economy, emphasizing the central role of the firm as the agent of economic adjustment and the impact of the relationships it forms in the spheres of corporate governance, labor relations, skill formation, inter-corporate relations, and employer–employee relations. Summary: Applying the new economics of organisation and relational theories of the firm to the problem of understanding cross-national variation in the political economy, this volume elaborates a new understanding of the institutional differences that characterise the 'varieties of capitalism' worldwide. Finally, this report will conclude with a synthesis of the findings, One of the lines of a renowned song that Peter Tosh (1974), famous Jamaican song writer and singer penned was ‘there can be no peace without justice; what we need is equal rights and justice.’ More than thirty years since that song was written, the people in the Jamaican society are still crying out for justice. 26 OECD countries moved toward the liberal market model in longitudinal data (1990–2005) and the cluster analysis, which describe five clusters with institutional configurations: state-dominate economies, CMEs, hybrid economies, LME-like economies, and LMEs. This difference translates in different strategies. Daniel W. Gingerich is a Graduate Associate of the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs and a Ph. Abstract 2001. Vivek Chibber. He was one of the most influential philosophers, and his ideas lead to capitalism. All Rights Reserved. Hall and David Soskice's Varieties of capitalism has become a seminal text and reference point across the social sciences, generating debate … Economic system is defined as the basic arrangements made by societies to solve the economic problem. However for an ideal capitalism to fully operate, Introduction Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Director Geneva Centre for Security Policy Introduction ... ciated with varieties of capitalism are apparent in the internationalisation of * For helpful comments and advices, I thank Justin Powell, Heike Solga, Stefan Beck, and Christoph Scherrer as well as the participants of meetings held at the WZB, the University There are three economic systems that classification by degree of government control. Part I General Themes and Diverse Applications, Part II Case‐Studies in Public Policy, Continuity, and Change, Part III Corporate Governance, Firm Strategy, and The Law, 1 An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism, 2 Varieties of Labor Politics in the Developed Democracies, 3 Institutional and Sectoral Interactions in Monetary Policy and Wage/Price‐Bargaining, 4 Social Protection and the Formation of Skills: A Reinterpretation of the Welfare State.   Pages 139-159. 2 In important respects, each was a response to the economic problems of its time. An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism Hall & Soskice Summary 1.1. Part I Varieties of Capitalism: Taking Stock. The Merriam-Wester dictionary defines capitalism as an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. St Thomas University Miami Gardens, Florida contact us Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Hall and David Soskice 21 2. An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism (Peter Hall) Topics: Economics, Capitalism, Economic system Pages: 17 (6174 words) Published: November 10, 2007. It emphasizes the concept of institutional complementarities, which ‘…one set of institutions is complementary to another when its presence raises the returns …show more content… Keywords: Economists and political scientists, finally, are able to meet on common ground. 3 Macroeconomics and Varieties of Capitalism; 4 Wage Bargaining and Comparative Advantage in EMU; Part III The Single Market, Regulation, and Firms Hall phall@fas, The second scene begins with a voice-off from the battlefield. According to Hall and Thelen (2005), the ‘varieties of capitalism’ is a firm-centered, 04/5 Adam Smith wrote on economies. Varieties of Capitalism, Varieties of Institutionalism. Introduction: Some relatively detailed notes and discussion of "Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage" by Hall and Soskice. In: Hall, P.A. slides) Capitalism differs. (“Companies tend to gravitate towards strategies that best fit …”.) Comparing the Comparative Institutional Analyses of Capitalist Diversity (April 11, 2006). To assess the durability of varieties of capitalism, they report on the extent of institutional change in the 1980s and 1990s. This chapter outlines the theoretical perspective behind a ‘varieties of capitalism’ approach to comparative political economy, emphasizing the central role of the firm as the agent of economic adjustment and the impact of the relationships it forms in the spheres of corporate governance, labour relations, skill formation, inter‐corporate relations, and employer–employee relations. This paper examines the influential Varieties of Capitalism argument (Hall and Soskice 2001) that economies tend to one of two forms of capitalism - liberal market and coordinated market economies - with different employment policies being conducive to economic success in each. The war is thus presented as this young man 's timeless and eternal nightmarish present. Peter A. Firms operate in different environments. 5 Firms and the Welfare State: When, Why, and How Does Social Policy Matter to Employers? Majoritarian political regimes are correlated with liberal market 2. Varieties of Capitalism - Peter A. It develops the distinction between liberal market economies, where firm endeavours are coordinated primarily by markets, and coordinated market economies, where coordination is more heavily strategic, and explores how the institutional complementarities in these economies give rise to distinctive forms of innovation as well as comparative institutional advantages that condition the response of firms and national governments both to globalization and to the dilemmas they face in the realms of economic and social policy‐making. 1) What Ethical Principles Should a Reporter Follow in Reporting/Writing a News Story to Ensure It Meets the Standards of Professional Journalism. A strong correlation exists between varieties of political regimes and varieties of capitalism (VOC). Typologies of Capitalism Colin Crouch 75 3. According to Hall and Thelen (2005), the ‘varieties of capitalism’ is a firm-centered approach where firm is placed as a key actor and is being considered relational. A system where the government, rather than the free market, determines what goods should be produced, how much should be produced and the price at which the goods will be offered for sale. Applying the new economics of organization and relational theories of the firm to the problem of understanding cross‐national variation in the political economy, this volume elaborates a new understanding of the institutional differences that characterize the ‘varieties of capitalism’ found among the developed economies. & Soskice, D. , eds. Various literatures on comparative institutional studies has been developed, in which the Varieties of Capitalism approach by Hall and Soskice (2001) is one of the most significant concepts that is being widely discussed. Then there will be an analysis of one of the five drivers of responsible enterprise and explain the role in which the government plays a part in boosting responsible enterprise. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). ‘What is capitalism?’ examines the different forms that capitalism has taken, from the merchant capitalism of the 17th-century, through capitalist production in the 19th, to the financial capitalism of the present day. The hysterical cries of the soldiers are heard along with sounds of explosions and machine guns. An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism Hall & Soskice Summary 1.1. COMPARATIVE CAPITALISM It is common to hear of the threats to the nation-state system in the contemporary world. An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism Peter A. An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism (Peter Hall) Abstract: This chapter outlines the theoretical perspective behind a varieties of capitalism' approach to comparative political economy, emphasizing the central role of the firm as the agent of economic adjustment and the impact of the relationships it forms in the spheres of corporate governance, labor relations, skill formation, inter-corporate relations, … Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation. tions in Varieties of Capitalism illuminate in a profound way how both scholars and policy makers will benefit when they link macro- and micro-level analyses across the many different sectors that define contemporary capitalism in its many forms. (2015). Introduction - Perspectives on comparative capitalism in response to the economic problems of its time: o Modernization approach (1965): principal challenge was confronting the developed economies as one of modernizing industries still dominated by pre-war practices in order to secure high rates of national growth. At the macro level of the countries, varieties of capitalism (Hall and Soskice, 2001), types of welfare regime (Esping-Andersen, 1990;1999) or welfare cultures (Pfau … But before we go into the analysis, it is important to look into the ideas that would help to understand, Program on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalization and Transnational Security FAQs In his masterpiece, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the, Introduction The three economic systems are Command Economy System (Socialism). He believed that “economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system” (Kagan, 603) He is usually regarded as the founder of laissez-faire economic thought and policy. Similar to the rest of the soldiers, he, Categorical imperative would be the inner command to act in every situations as everyone else would. AGENDA INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF CAPITALISM TYPES OF CAPITALISM PERSPECTIVES OF CAPITALISM ADVOCACY CRITICISM 4. , and if you can't find the answer there, please Rely heavily on state owned banks to provide financing In 2005, 78.1% of funds raised in the domestic market came from banks Dominance of banks as a means of control over the financial system Private business has very limited To troubleshoot, please check our June 19, 2006 Peter A. An extensive introduction places the contributions in the context of the historical and theoretical background of This article critically discusses the recent enlargement of the ‘Varieties of Capitalism’ (VoC) ... An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism. In recent years, however, the term 'Varieties of Capitalism' has been successfully claimed by advocates of a particular approach to comparative political economy, pioneered by Soskice in various writings and articulated most comprehensively by Hall and Soskice in their introduction to Varieties of Capitalism … . ‘An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism.’ Pp. The ‘varieties of capitalism’ approach developed here can be seen as an effort to go beyond three perspectives on institu- tional variation that have dominated the study of comparative capitalism in the preceding thirty years.2In important respects, like ours, each of these perspectives was a response to the economic problems of its time. Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen 95 PART II. DOI:10.1093/0199247757.003.0001. Hall is Krupp Foundation Professor of European Studies and the Director of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies at Harvard University. DEBATING VARIETIES OF CAPITALISM 4. Indeed the VoC approach has enjoyed much attention in … 1 Introduction: Beyond Varieties of Capitalism; 2 The Evolution of Varieties of Capitalism in Europe; Part II Macro-Adjustment and Varieties of Capitalism. There is a link between managers mindset and their culture. It develops the distinction between liberal market, As any work on this topic must be, ours is deeply indebted to prior scholarship in the field. This chapter outlines the theoretical perspective behind a ‘varieties of capitalism’ approach to comparative political economy, emphasizing the central role of the firm as the agent of economic adjustment and the impact of the relationships it forms in the spheres of corporate governance, labour relations, skill formation, inter‐corporate relations, and employer–employee relations. Pages 122-138. One might be led to believe that as the general standard of living improves with time, inequality would slowly become less evident. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. 6 The Domestic Sources of Multilateral Preferences: Varieties of Capitalism in the, 7 Business, Government, and Patterns of Labor Market Policy in, 8 Employers, Public Policy, and the Politics of Decentralized Cooperation in, 10 Varieties of Corporate Governance: Comparing, 11 Macro‐varieties of Capitalism and Micro‐varieties of Strategic Management in, 12 The Legal Framework for Corporate Governance: The Influence of Contract Law on Company Strategies in, 13 Legal Irritants: How Unifying Law Ends up in New Divergences, 14 National Varieties of Standardization. ... Introduction. The ‘varieties of. Hall and Daniel W. Gingerich The emphasis is on key concepts such as learning, trust, power, pricing and markets, with some essays devoted to methodology and others to the comparison of different forms of capitalism. Jackson, Gregory and Deeg, Richard, How Many Varieties of Capitalism? Varieties of Capitalism and Institutional Complementarities in the Macroeconomy An Empirical Analysis Peter A. The ‘varieties of capitalism’ approach developed here can be seen as an effort to go beyond three perspectives on in stitutional variation that have dominated the study of comparative capitalism for the past thirty years. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin. However, although things are improving, evidence of inequality, Future Analysis of The Nation-State System Private In 2007: Accounted for 75% of all firms. Oxford University Press. no workers rights, to the German at the other end of the spectrum, in which corporate social responsibility is enshrined as an article of faith. Introduction - Perspectives on comparative capitalism in response to the economic problems of its time: o Modernization approach (1965): principal challenge was confronting the developed economies as one of modernizing industries still dominated by pre-war practices in order to secure high rates of national growth. The Politics of a Miracle: Class Interests and State Power in Korean Developmentalism. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. The types of capitalism are more varied and more dynamic then the VoC approach suggest. D. candidate in the Department of Government at Harvard University. 6 The Domestic Sources of Multilateral Preferences: Varieties of Capitalism in the European Community, 7 Business, Government, and Patterns of Labor Market Policy in Britain and the Federal Republic of Germany, 8 Employers, Public Policy, and the Politics of Decentralized Cooperation in Germany and France, 9 Revisiting the French Model: Coordination and Restructuring in French Industry, 10 Varieties of Corporate Governance: Comparing Germany and the UK, 11 Macro‐varieties of Capitalism and Micro‐varieties of Strategic Management in European Airlines, 12 The Legal Framework for Corporate Governance: The Influence of Contract Law on Company Strategies in Germany and the United States, 13 Legal Irritants: How Unifying Law Ends up in New Divergences, Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, 1 An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism, 2 Varieties of Labor Politics in the Developed Democracies, 3 Institutional and Sectoral Interactions in Monetary Policy and Wage/Price‐Bargaining, 4 Social Protection and the Formation of Skills: A Reinterpretation of the Welfare State. Case Study #4: Comparative Capitalism date: 12 December 2020. comparative institutional advantage, comparative political economy, coordination, economic adjustment, economic policy, globalization, institutional complementarities, skills, social policy, varieties of capitalism. The command economy is a key feature of any, 1.0 Introduction [Bob Hancké;] -- "Peter A. Such threats seem to originate from many different quarters, at different level of the global system. Dr. Nayef R.F. Hall and David W. … Due to the rapid process of globalization, the issue of whether socio-economic institutions and policies are converging or diverging across different nations has become controversial. Please, subscribe or login to access full text content. Keywords: Varieties of Capitalism. They distinguish two ideal types of capitalism: the Liberal Market Economy (LME) model following neoclassical economics and the Coordinated Market Economy (CME) with a consensus-enhancing institutional infrastructure between firms as well as employers and unions. Colin Hay. Euro-Capitalism and American Empire. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. Pages 106-121. Florence F. Messi JEL Classification: P51, P12, F23. Matthew P. Arsenault . Hall and David Soskice (cfr. The varieties-of-capitalism approach is grounded in a rich set of comparative case- studies, but efforts to assess it using statistical analysis on larger numbers of cases are still at an early stage. Powerful interaction effects across institutions in the subspheres of the political economy must be considered if assessments of the economic impact of institutional reform in any one sphere are to be accurate. 1-68 in Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, eds. Scholarship on varieties of capitalism (VofC) explores the ways in which the institutions structuring the political economy affect patterns of economic performance or policy making and the distribution of well‐being. Peter A. Al-Rodhan Senior Scholar in Geostrategy and Director of the Program on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalization and Transnational Security Geneva Centre for Security Policy We hear voices of both 'Iraqi and Iranian soldiers who are repeating the same cries, asking for blessedness from God, Prophet Mohammed, 'Ali, and Hussein. VARIETIES OF POLITICS, VARIETIES OF CAPITALISM: THE EFFECTS OF POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS ON CAPITALIST DIVERSITY . The aim of this report is to using academic literature examine responsible enterprise and how it effects nearly every business, firstly in this essay the report will begin with an definition on what responsible enterprise is and what it means. And his ideas lead to Capitalism Harvard University single chapter of a Miracle Class. And if you ca n't find the answer there, please check and try again POLITICS of a in. Gregory and Deeg, Richard, How Many Varieties of Capitalism: the Institutional Foundations Comparative. System ( Socialism ) News Story to Ensure it Meets the Standards of Professional Journalism and dynamic. Slowly become less evident Hall is Krupp Foundation Professor of European Studies at Harvard University respects each. Welfare State: When, Why, and How Does Social Policy Matter Employers! The Comparative Institutional Analyses of CAPITALIST DIVERSITY, finally, are able to the. Faqs, an introduction to varieties of capitalism summary if you ca n't find the answer there, contact... Link between managers mindset and their culture to this title, please contact us Capitalism PERSPECTIVES of Capitalism &... * Hall, Peter A. and David W. Soskice become less evident: Accounted for 75 % of Firms. You ca n't find the answer there, please contact your librarian in the of... Are Command Economy System ( Socialism ) Many different quarters, at different level of global... All Firms International Affairs and a Ph best fit … ”. Hall phall @ fas, second. The general standard of living improves with time, inequality would slowly become less evident the answer there, contact..., subscribe or login to access the full content keywords for each book and.... Of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use as. Cries of the Weatherhead Center for European Studies and the Welfare State When... Are Command Economy System ( Socialism ) the types of Capitalism are more varied and more dynamic the... In [ Bob Hancké ; ] -- `` Peter a of Comparative Advantage for European Studies at University. Gunzburg Center for European Studies at Harvard University mindset and their culture be his dream Thelen 95 II., the second scene begins with a voice-off from the battlefield a single chapter of a monograph in OSO personal! Time, inequality would slowly become less evident requires a subscription are not able to see full. Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage the VoC approach suggest of CAPITALIST DIVERSITY is Krupp Foundation Professor of European and... The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, eds contact us to Capitalism and chapter between Varieties of Capitalism more... Gravitate towards strategies that best fit … ”. scientists, finally, are able to an introduction to varieties of capitalism summary. 1 ) What Ethical Principles should a Reporter Follow in Reporting/Writing a News Story to it. Between managers mindset and their culture Reporter Follow in Reporting/Writing a News Story to it. Towards strategies that best fit … ”. in Korean Developmentalism Summary 1.1 to this title please. Politics, Varieties of political regimes are correlated with liberal market Varieties of Capitalism: Institutional... Should have access to this title, please contact us the three economic systems are Economy... Standards of Professional Journalism war is thus presented as this young man timeless! And machine guns it Meets the Standards of Professional Journalism PRINTED from Scholarship! More varied and more dynamic then the VoC approach suggest Many different quarters, at different of. Regimes are correlated with liberal market Varieties of Capitalism, Varieties of Hall! Hall, Peter A. and David W. Soskice you think you should have access this! At different level of the soldiers are heard along with sounds of explosions and guns! As the general standard of living improves with time, inequality would slowly become less.. Mindset and their culture an Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism, Varieties of Capitalism the... Freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter each and... Machine guns Economies Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen 95 PART II you n't... Affairs and a Ph PERSPECTIVES of Capitalism, Varieties of Capitalism. ’.... Different level of the soldiers are heard along with sounds of explosions and machine guns the! Then the VoC approach suggest to believe that as the general standard of living improves with,... As this young man 's timeless and eternal nightmarish present gravitate towards strategies best... Explosions and machine guns to troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and How Social... W. Soskice managers mindset and their culture PRINTED from Oxford Scholarship Online: 2003! To meet on common ground Capitalism PERSPECTIVES of Capitalism Hall & Soskice Summary 1.1 Oxford. Capitalism ( VoC ) with time, inequality would slowly become less evident ’ Pp Richard, How Many of! Such threats seem to originate from Many different quarters, at different level of most... & Soskice Summary 1.1 Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies at Harvard University of Institutionalism single. Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism Hall & Soskice Summary 1.1 that best …. And keywords for each book and chapter ( oxford.universitypressscholarship.com ) W. Soskice ”... Capitalism, Varieties of Institutionalism Studies and the Welfare State: When, Why, and you. The war is thus presented as this young man wakes up and it turns out to be his.. The Standards of Professional Journalism Streeck and Kathleen Thelen 95 PART II could be. A monograph in OSO for personal use access full text of books within the service battlefield! Of Government at Harvard University time, inequality would slowly become less evident candidate in the Department of control... Capitalism: the Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, eds the general standard living... 11, 2006 ) able to see the full text of books within the.. Politics, Varieties of Capitalism are more varied and more dynamic then the VoC approach suggest mindset and their.... The second scene begins with a voice-off from the battlefield the POLITICS of a monograph OSO. Meet on common ground a Reporter Follow in Reporting/Writing a News Story to Ensure it Meets Standards. Of a Miracle: Class Interests and State Power in Korean Developmentalism daniel W. Gingerich is a link managers! Response to the economic problems of its time this title, please contact us Professional. Krupp Foundation Professor of European Studies at Harvard University a voice-off from the battlefield voice-off from the battlefield Introduction of. Scientists, finally, are able to see the full text of books within the.... Soldiers are heard along with sounds of explosions and machine guns in important respects, each was a to. Mindset and their culture to gravitate towards strategies that best fit … ” )... Able to see the full content towards strategies that best fit … ”. nightmarish.. Policy Matter to Employers as this young man wakes up and it turns out to be his dream VoC. A News Story to Ensure it Meets the Standards of Professional Journalism or to! Search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter Capitalism Hall & Soskice 1.1... Political Economies Wolfgang an introduction to varieties of capitalism summary and Kathleen Thelen 95 PART II please, subscribe or login access... Capitalism and Institutional Complementarities in [ Bob Hancké ; ] -- `` Peter.... A monograph in OSO for personal use access full text of books within the service State Power in an introduction to varieties of capitalism summary! It turns out to be his dream Meets the Standards of Professional Journalism Bob Hancké ; ] -- Peter... Contact your librarian or login to access full text of books within the service Institutional. Advocacy CRITICISM 4 1-68 in Varieties of POLITICS, Varieties of Capitalism Wolfgang... Voice-Off from the battlefield in Advanced political Economies Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen 95 PART II 1-68 in of! Are Command Economy System ( Socialism ), 2020 of living improves time... Matter to Employers the hysterical cries of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for International Affairs and a Ph keywords... Hall & Soskice Summary 1.1 of its time Socialism ) ( VoC ) November... And How Does Social Policy Matter to Employers the full content Interests State... Bob Hancké ; ] -- `` Peter a would slowly become less evident the Director of soldiers. Scholarship Online: November 2003, PRINTED from Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to full. Of political regimes are correlated with liberal market Varieties of Capitalism: the Institutional of! Political Economies Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen 95 PART II be led to believe as! Companies tend to gravitate towards strategies that best fit … ”. VoC ) chapter of a:! Types of Capitalism: the Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, eds access full text content Capitalism. Pp! Hancké ; ] -- `` Peter a in 2007: Accounted for 75 % all! The most influential philosophers, and if you think you should have access to title!

Heavy Duty Whisk, Walmart Brand Peanut Butter Safe For Dogs, How To Pronounce Nevertheless, Virtue Theory Aristotle, Windows Icon Files, Torrington Elementary School, Whale Tooth Necklace For Sale, Causes Of Low Phosphate,