We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Hannibal refused to move on Rome. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… The Carthaginian base of Carthago Nova soon developed as Scipio's first target, with a garrison of 1,000 men he surmised that its defeat would not only be easy, but would be a major blow to the enemy in the heart of its territory. Since Rome's victory in the first Punic War, the vaunted Carthaginian fleet was no match for Rome, and Hannibal knew that the Romans would only be vulnerable from an overland attack. The only blemishes on his record, for which he would be furiously punished politically by Cato the Elder years later, were his failure to stop Hasdrubal from escaping to Italy, and the short-lived and uneventful mutiny in 206 BC. The Roman plan for the season was simple, engage and defeat the Carthaginian ground forces. To counteract Hannibal's methods, the Romans elected Fabius Maximus as dictator. Except for the Greek coastal cities, which leaned towards Rome in diplomatic alliances, all of Spain was secure. In the end of the campaign season, the Romans maintained control of the newly won territory, but Gnaeus had been seriously injured in combat. In exchange for helping secure his position, the tribal chief fed the Carthaginians and provided enough supplies to see them through the rest of the journey. Opposition to his war from the Carthaginian Senate, mainly from Hanno, along with Roman superiority at sea, prevented Hannibal from ever securing the resources needed to complete his conquests. Fierce resistance throughout the march debilitated Hannibal's army. Allied arrangements were made with various African tribes, Libyans, Moors and the Numidian Prince Massinissa to assist in the coming invasion. The Battle of Metaurus was the most pivotal battle of the entire war. Typically, Roman prisons were not used to punish criminals, but instead served only to hold people awaiting trial or execution. Despite the brilliance of his veterans, the Carthaginians had no chance while being crushed on all sides. He advised Carthage to accept the best terms they could and that further war against Rome, at this time, was futile. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. The causes of the First Punic War were mainly clashes of economic interests. Sicily would become very important to Rome as a source of grain. Cold and hungry, Hannibal and his army stormed a Gallic town on the 3rd day of the mountain hike. Scipio dispatched Laelius and Masinissa, the allied Numidian king with a partial force to end the threat once and for all, while he maintained the siege of Utica. However, even though the final conquest of Hispania would take another 2 centuries, the campaigns of Scipio in the far west of Europe helped establish Rome as the ultimate power of the Mediterranean. Despite this, Scipio was ready to put an end to the war in Spain and he marched to Illipa to meet the advancing Carthaginian army. Marcellus was able to cross back into Italy and put more pressure on Hannibal. While the year 207 BC was drawing to a close, both sides prepared for what would prove to be the final battle between the two forces in Hispania. Hannibal disengaged, neither victorious nor defeated, but for the first time, a Roman army proved that Hannibal was not unbeatable. Meanwhile, the Romans were waiting in Cisalpine Gaul under Scipio the Elder. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. books 21-30 for the bulk of the Second Punic War. Scipio chose the site of his own camp for the battle, situated on a natural spring. He found a perfect one at Lake Trasimenus in April of 217 BC. Briefly describe the results of the Hannibalic War  Explain how victory in the Hannibalic War helped the creation of the Roman Empire  Do you accept that Polybius's interpretation of the results of the Second Punic War is true? P. Cornelius Scipio returned to Italy to deal with the revolt and the impending arrival of Hannibal, while his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, took the invasionary army on to Hispania. The system of alliances, treaties, protectorates and provinces forged the basis of a highly successful empire. The beginning of 211 BC proved to be a much better year for the Barca clan. Romans wanted military success on the battlefield, not in a war of attrition. Malnourished, weather-beaten and exhausted, the Carthaginian force was met with resistance by many of the local Gallic tribes. To the north, in Cisalpine Gaul, a Roman force was crushed by the Celts. Advance political arrangements were made with several African tribes to aid in the eventual invasion of Africa. Isolated along the eastern Italian coast, the Roman's jumped at the chance to crush Hasdrubal before he could reinforce Hannibal. Casilinum and Arpi were recaptured by Rome, but Hannibal looked to Tarentum as a long sought after port to receive reinforcements and supplies. The Carthaginians faced difficulties of their own in the form of revolts in Africa. The defeat of Carthage transformed the Roman Republic from a growing regional power into the super-powered Empire of the Mediterranean. Scipio, though later widely criticized, knew that pursuit into the interior of Spain would have been folly and let Hasdrubal go, choosing instead to focus on the remaining Carthaginian forces and strongholds. King Syphax of the Numidians rose against Carthage, an uprising eagerly incited by the Romans, troubling the Carthaginian's cause in Spain even further. The Roman economy was stimulated by the increase in profits as a result of its new prosperous land. Despite all his victories, Rome could persevere. Scipio's army was circumvented from going to Spain and sent with Lucius Manlius to defend the Po Valley from the Gauls. At Asculum he defeated a vastly superior Roman numerical advantage and shortly thereafter won a greater victory in a minor skirmish at Venusia. The Roman victory assured that Hannibal would never be reinforced by a substantial force. While Marcellus moved to Sicily in 214 BC, the Carthaginian senate chose to make another grab for that island which was once theirs, rather than reinforce Hannibal. The third and final war lasted 49-146 B.C, for 3 years. He invaded Picenum, Apulia and Campania, where his tactics of divide and conquer were beginning to bear more fruit. New legions were raised with conscripts from previous untouched citizen classes. Despite Marcellus' good showing, Carthage was able to capture Acerrae, Casilinium and Arpi furthering his influence in central Italy. In 204 BC Scipio crossed the sea and landed in North Africa with a veteran army of as many as 35,000 men. As a result and from the very outset of the Roman invasion, Rome was able to secure a port as a supply base and also immediately nullify Spain as a source of supply and reinforcement for Hannibal in Italy. The mutiny was quickly quelled as Scipio recovered, payments were arranged and the ringleaders executed, and operations soon continued as normal. Envoys sent to Carthage to complain about this violation of the newly ratified peace treaty were promptly attacked, and Scipio had no choice but to renew his offensive. Reinforcements could've been sent to Hannibal in Italy, or against gains in the north of Spain, but instead their interest in victory seemed to wane. In the 220's BC, they established a treaty with Carthage limiting expansion to anything south of the Ebro. At the Battle of Ticinus, in late 218 BC, the 2 forces were first engaged in a small confrontation. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. Along the march from the Pyrenees to the Rhodenus (Rhone) Hannibal's original planning started to bear fruit. The outbreak of the Second Punic War began when Hannibal moved north across Ebro to begin his historic march over the Alps. 4,000 cavalry reinforcements, sent late under Gaius Centenius, were also intercepted and finished off in the complete Carthaginian rout. Hannibal's strategy of encouraging revolt among the Roman allies could have been devastating if Rome couldn't field any more legions. In Rome, the defeats were obviously shocking but were greeted with a resolute response. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. His efforts were in vain, however, as the Punic armies stormed the hastily construced defenses and destroyed the army of the Romans. Meanwhile, Hannibal's brother Hanno was kept busy suppressing a revolt against Carthage near Bruttium. In 210 BC the desperation was apparent in the granting of imperium to the young Publius Cornelius Scipio. By 220 BC, while the Romans were occupied in Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, Hannibal, and his brother Hasdrubal established control of the Hispania peninsula as far north as the Ebro (Iberus) River. In the year 216 BC, both Roman and Carthaginian commands were occupied consolidating control over their own territories rather than fighting one another. A copy of the acts of the Deified Augustus by which he placed the whole world under the sovereignty of the Roman people. In the aftermath of its loss to Rome, they had little choice but to keep focused on quelling local tribes before they defected to the enemy. Approaching the enemy, Publius found himself walking into a hornet's nest, being stung on all sides. While the Carthaginians lost as much as half or 2/3rds of its army, Hasdrubal was able to save enough of it to continue with his planned reinforcement of Hannibal. The Carthaginians spent the winter of 207 and 206 BC once again recruiting amongst the locals for a final effort against Scipio. Also scouting the enemy during the winter before his first campaign, he discovered that the Carthaginian forces were not only still divided in three forces, but that in-fighting between them seemed to show a lack of cooperation. At first, the Roman front line was beaten badly in the center, but Scipio left more men in reserve, forcing Hannibal to leave some men uncommitted. His troops had long been operating unpaid and the recent plunder from various expeditions roused them into a mutinous state. Weakened by the need to garrison so many new conquests, the Romans were left with only a small contingent of actual legionaries among 45,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry. Knowing the local Celts relationship with Rome, Hannibal took full advantage. Believing Scipio was too ill, or perhaps even dead, to make good on payments, they revolted on the Sucro River in 206 BC. All work is written to order. Hannibal placed all of his elephants in the front of his army, with mixed infantry behind and cavalry on the flanks. In the end, perhaps only as many as 15,000 Romans managed to escape with Varro. An essay or paper on Causes and Effects of the Punic Wars. The battle opened with the elephants charging the Roman lines. Gnaeus Scipio landed at Emporiae in NE Hispania, in October 218 BC and immediately advanced south, taking control of territory as far as Tarraco. Rome had lost over 300,000 men over the course of the war, farms and other establishments in Italy were devestated. 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