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wurch zone of climate

The decomposition  of  wastes  in  landfills,  agriculture,  ruminant  digestion  and  manure management,  synthetic  compounds  manufacturing, clearing  of  land  for  agriculture,  industrial activities,  and  other  human  activities  have  increased  concentrations  of  greenhouse  gases.  The major gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include Water vapor, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane,  Nitrous  oxide,  Chlorofluorocarbons  (CFCs).Although,  methane  is  less  abundant  in atmosphere, it is by far more active greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This is because the temperature and the amount of energy reaching the surface is directly related with the directness of the sun.The direction of rain bearing winds (leeward or windward side) also determines the temperature variations in mountainous regions. (1500 – 2400 m.a.s.l) to wurch zone at the upper elevations (above 3700 m.a.s.l). The Bereha agro-climatic zone is largely confined to lowland areas with altitude of lower than 500 meters. Some people think a desert is nothing but sand dunes. Spanning the areas of central Sweden, southern Finland, the Oslo Basin of Norway and much of central and southeast Europe, this area experiences colder winters, mountain snowfalls and warmer summers. Although agriculture is the main zone of . These regions have hot, rainy summers and cold, dry winters. Average annual temperature ranges between 20oc and 30oc. An equinox is the instant of time when the sun strikes the plane of the Earth’s equator. Equinox appears twice a year. Hence, there has to be response mechanism to reduce the impact of extreme events.  There are three major response mechanisms to climate change namely mitigation, adaptation and resilience. Ethiopia and the Horn’s location within the tropical zone resulted in; The earth’s rotation axis makes an angle of about 66 ½° with the plane of its orbit around the sun, or about 23½° from the perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. The summer Solstice: on June 21st, the northern hemisphere has maximum tilt towards the sun experiencing longest daylight of the year. Notably the variability is higher in July-September. Some of the consequences of the changing climate include: How do our forefathers react to the changing climate?  Do we have any traditional (indigenous) mechanism? Tundra climates have at least one month in a year when the average temperature is above freezing levels. Bereha is the hot arid climate of the desert lowlands. Kolla (lowlands, 500 -1,500, sorghum, finger millet, sesame, cowpeas, groundnuts) 3. The region contains some of the most productive agricultural lands in the world. Changes in temperature and rainfall increase the frequency and severity of extreme events. These are: As a result of the diversified altitude and climatic conditions, Ethiopia possesses diversagroclimatic zones. There are some mitigation measures that can be taken to avoid the increase of pollutant emissions. High-dega and temperate climate zones are found in between the two (Falch and Keiner, 2000). Human  induced  greenhouse  gases  such  as  carbon  dioxide,  methane  and  nitrous  oxide  have caused much of the observed increase in Earth’s temperatures over the past 50 years. Adaptation is simply defined as adapting to life in a changing climate. These climates are found at the tops of mountains, which are vacant of any trees, other than dwarf trees. DESERT. The regions have fresh summers and wet winters with mild weather. Djibouti,  majority  of  Somalia,  and  coastal  areas  of  Eritrea  are  categorized  under Kolla and Bereha zones. The characteristics of each climate zone vary according to the features of the land where that climate zone is present. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Temperature, 5.3.2. The indices are applied to daily temperature and precipitation data. Major floods have been a common occurrence, leading to loss of life and property in numerous parts of the country. Precipitation has remained fairly stable over the last 50 years when averaged over the country. In the Wurch zone, usually no rainfed crops would be expected to grow. The regions of Ethiopia are administratively divided into 68 or more zones (Amharic: ዞን, zonə). In other words, though Ethiopia is found within the tropic, is not a hot country since its altitudinal climate Altitude is an important element in determining temperature of Ethiopia and the Horn. LGP 5. Tropical Climates Polar Climates Dry & Arid/Semi-arid Climates Steppe Tropical Rainforest Tropical Savanna This climate zone is Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. The rise has spatial and temporalvariation. However, some parts of the country enjoy a temperate climate. Climate Change/Global Warming: Causes, Consequences and Response Mechanisms. Now the question one should inquire here is what determines the variations in weather and climate between places and seasons. As already explained, temperature is high during the daytime in some places, and is considerably reduced at night resulting maximum difference in the daily range. Land use and land cover 6. In general, the weather that impacts the surface of the Earth and those that live on the surface takes place in the troposphere. Upon the completion of this chapter, you will be able to:  Distinguish between weather and climate,  Explicate the spatiotemporal patterns and distribution of temperature and rainfall in Ethiopia,  Analyse climate and its implications on biophysical and socioeconomicaspects,  Comprehend the causes, consequences andresponse mechanisms of climate change. Ethiopia’s daily temperatures are more extreme than its annual averages. Tall trees and many different kinds of plants are found in tropical regions. ... Wurch (above 3,700 m a.s.l. Average temperatures are up to 32°C and annual rainfall can reach 2000 mm. The severe drought of 2015-2016 was exacerbated by the strongest El Nino that caused successive harvest failures and widespread livestock deaths in some regions. We understand your requirement and provide quality works. Climate zones are differentiated based on average temperatures and the amount of precipitation that occurs in an area. Some of the major adaptation strategies include: Contact us. Daily maximum temperature varies from a high of more than 370c over the lowlands in northeast and southeast to a low of about 10 -150c over the northwestern and southwestern highlands. Dry climates, otherwise known as arid or semi-arid climates, have very little rainfall throughout the year. This area consists of the Danakil Depression (about 125 metres below sea level and with average temperature of about 34°C or about 93°F), the valleys of … Climate Zones Classification DRUG STABILITY TESTING Classification of Countries According to Climatic Zones c DRUG STABILITY TESTING Classification of Countries According to Climatic Zones Country Climatic Zones Assigned To Country Climatic Zones Assigned To … The distribution of weather and climate elements over the surface of the earth is uneven in terms of magnitude and time.  Hotness or coldness, rainy or cloudiness, sunniness, windiness or calmness, of air you are feeling on the daily base in your current location are expressions of weather. The Wurch-zone is an area having altitude higher than 3,200 meters above sea level and mean annual temperature of less than 100C. Although mean  annual  rainfall  is  erratic,  it  can  be  as  high  as  1500  mm  in  the  wet  western  lowlands  of Gambella. It is the astronomical first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere.  The sun is at its highest position in the noonday sky, directly above 23 ½ in the Tropic of Cancer. Tropical climates remain warm throughout the year. Let’s see two major equinoxes’; The Vernal (spring) equinox: is the day when the point of verticality of sun’s rays crosses the equator northwards. In Ethiopia, the geographic peripheries in south, southeast, west and northeastern part are mainly in this category. The climate of Ethiopia is mainly controlled by the seasonal migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and associated atmospheric circulation, but the topography has also an effect on local climate conditions. However, these averages do not reflect local conditions which are extremely divergent and the natural variability in rainfall in the country makes it difficult to detect long-term trends.Rainfall variability is increasing (and predictability is decreasing) in many parts of the country. Climate is the state of the atmosphere over long time periods, decades and more.  It is the composite of daily weather conditions recorded for long periods of time. Farming system 7. Kolla is the climate of the hot lowlands with an altitudinal range of 500 to 1500 meters above sea level. Approximately 75% of precipitation in the area falls between Kolla (Tropical zone) - is below 1830 metres in elevation and has an average annual temperature of about 27 degree Celsius with annual rainfall about 510 millimetres. Plan for heat waves and higher temperatures, Installing water-permeable pavements to better deal with floods and storm water. ). However, their altitudes very, and therefore their temperatures vary, as shown in table 5.1. Hence, these determining factors are called controls of weather and climate or climatic controls. While you complain that the climate zone map doesn't make fine distinctions between climate zones, that was the deliberate intent. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. This zone has warmer temperature and moderate rainfall.  It lies between 1500-2,300 meters above sea level.  It is the second largest zone covering more than 26% of the landmass of Ethiopia. This equinox experiences in Northern Hemisphere when the sun is exactly above the equator. The normal lapse rate is 6.5°C per kilometer rise in altitude. Field observation in the study catchment revealed that smallholder cereal plough cultivation is the dominant cultivation system in the area and most of the cultivated fields are usually planted Most parts of the zone are hilly or mountainous, but there are some plains. The Danakil Depression (Danakil Desert) is about 125 metres below sea level and the … As the earth revolves around the sun, this inclination produces a change in the directness of the sun’s rays; which in turn causes the directness of the sun and differences in length of day cause seasons. west africa. According to the ICH guidelines for stability studies, the climate of the world is divided into five different zones. For instance, unlike other parts of Ethiopia, the southern and southwestern highlands experience reduced temperature. Altitude is the main factor that determines the spatial distribution of temperature in Ethiopia. With groupings from the Koppen climate classification system 12 Climate Zones Climate Zones of the World By: Aidan Richardson Thank you for your time! 2015). Spatiotemporal Distribution of Rainfall, 5.5.1. low temperature over the Wurch and Dega area in the central area of North Shewa Zone and low rainfall, high temperature over the low land’s periphery of south, west and east of the zone as shown in Figure 1. This is a zone of highlands having relatively higher temperature and lower altitude compared to the wurch Zones. Details such as the sort of bodies of water are in or near the area, as well as the area’s location upon the earth, are important factors in determining what sort of climate is in that specific region of the world. The moderate oceanic climate is a sub-type of temperate climates. So even if we stopped emitting all greenhouse gases today, global warming and climate change will continue as it has natural source of emission. Livestock 9. The Sun is high in the sky for the whole year. During this period, the Northeast Trade Winds carrying non-moisture-laden dominates the region. weather and climate. Unfortunately I don't know if there's an equivalent map for Canada to figure out which zone you'd be in, but since I live very close to the border, I use the part of the map closest to my area. The  industrial  activities  that  our  modern  civilization  depends  upon  have  raised  atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years. It appears to happen when the visible sun moves south across the celestial equator on 23rd of September. Mean annual temperature varies from over 30Cin the tropical lowlands to less than 100c at very high altitudes. Efficient means of transport implementation: electric public transport, bicycle, shared cars etc. For example, three Ethiopian cities, Bako, Addis Ababa, and Awash all lies on the 90 N latitude, and therefore they might be expected to receive equal magnitudes of direct rays from the sun and therefor equal temperature. Besides  spatial  and  temporal  variations  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  Ethiopian  climate experiences extremes such as drought, flood etc. Afar and parts of Eritrean coastal areas experience rainfall in this period. Latitude, humidity and winds, with varying magnitude have also significant impacts on temperature conditions in Ethiopia. Controls of Weather and Climate5.3. It involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate. The rainfall is highly variable both in amount and distribution across regions and seasons. In the tropics, the daily range of temperature is higher and the annual range is small, whereas the reverse is true in the temperate latitudes. The winter solstice: 22ndof December is the day when the maximum southward inclination is attained in the Southern Hemisphere. Ethiopia ranked 5thout of 184 countries in terms of its risk of drought. Weather is the condition of atmosphere over a short period of time. Crops 8. The topographic feature of the administration is range from 927 Dega and Wurch are wetter and colder than the remaining zones often In the country, 12 extreme drought events were recorded between 1900 and 2010.  Among  the  12,  seven  of  the  drought  events  occurred  since  1980.  The majority of these resulted in famines. Andosols dominate in the wurch zone while Regosols dominate in the dega zone (Figure 3). However, there is a slight temperature increase in summer. In this event the sun travels shortest length causing longest night and shortest daylight.  In the Northern Hemisphere, it occurs when the sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn, which is located at 23 ½ ° south of the equator. Physical characteristics of continental climates include forests and prairies with tall grasses. We are there for your support. The sun shines directly on equator for more hours during the year than anywhere else.  As you move further away from the equator towards the poles, less solar insolation is received during the year and the temperature become colder. The characteristics for semi-arid zone as described in UNESCO (1979) were adopted. Liana Thomas began writing professionally in 2008. High average temperatures during most of the year. The Weynadega zone also hosts crops such as wheat, barely, fava bean and chickpea. Tropical climates, otherwise known as mega-thermal climates, are found in areas close to the equator. Ethiopia is in the tropical zone laying between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. The normal yearly precipitation over the entire nation of Ethiopia is 817 mm year −1 (Fazzini et al. As agriculture is much sensitive to climate and weather variables climate change has become one of the major challenges in maintaining agriculture productivity. The Dega zone usually is a zone where crops such as barley3, wheat4, and pulses5are grown. Following the position of the overhead sun, the ITCZ shifts north and south of the equator.As the shift takes place, equatorial westerlies from the south and southwest invade most parts of Ethiopia bringing moist winds.However, these winds decrease the length of rainy seasons and magnitudes on the line of the shift. World's continents, historical maps, world spoken languages, physical map and satellite images. In Ethiopia, as in all places in the tropics, the air is frost free and changes in solar angles are small making intense solar radiation. The annual precipitation of alpine climates is about 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) per year. The Dega and Wurch zones’ cultivation is highly dominated by barley, which covers about 57 and 78 per cent of the land cultivated, respectively. Climate also takes into account the extremes or variations that may occur beyond the average conditions. It marks the beginning of Autumn season. These include latitude, altitude/elevation, revolution of the earth and inclination of the earth’s axis, nearby water/ distance from water bodies, ocean currents, topography/ mountain barriers, vegetation, and prevailing winds.  Moreover, the global climate system and any changes that occur within it also influence local climate. Increase the use of renewable energy such as solar. The study aims to assess trends in extremes of surface temperature and precipitation through the application of the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) on datasets representing three agroecological zones in Southern Ethiopia. For instance, parts of southern, southwestern and south-eastern regions receiving spring and summer rainfall have shown decline by 15-20%between 1975 and 2010.  This has  strong  implications  for  crop  production,  which becomes  clear  when  assessing  the change  in  areas  that  receive  sufficient  rain  to  support cropproduction. Wildlife 10. In some regions, total average rainfall is showing decline. In many parts of the world, climate change has already caused loss of life, damaging property and affecting livelihoods. However, deserts are categorized according to the amount of rainfall, rather than by landforms, and can be hot or cool/cold. Tropical rainy climate This climate is found in tropical latitudes. These zones have traditionally been defined in terms of temperature. The DOE climate zone map was developed and proposed in 2002 by Ron Majette and Craig Conner. Rainfall is highly variable from year to year. The variation in the amount of solar radiation received daily is small throughout the year. A continental climate, otherwise known as a micro-thermal climate, can be found in the Northern Hemisphere near the east and north-western coasts. Climate. Tropical rainforests are found in tropical climates. Current Trends of Climate in Ethiopia. The temporal variability of rainfall is characterized by; Based on rainfall distribution, both in space and time, four rainfall regions can be identified in Ethiopia and the Horn. The highest mean maximum temperature in the country is recorded in the Afar Depression.Moreover, lowlands of north-western, western and south-eastern Ethiopian experiences mean maximum temperatures of more than 300C.Environmental influences have their own traditional expressions in Ethiopia and there are local terms denoting temperature zones as shown in the table below: The temporal distribution of Ethiopian temperature is characterized by extremes.The major controls determining its distributions are latitude and cloud cover. Higher rise in temperature was noted in drier areas in northeast and southeast part of the country. Here are some of the major natural causes: The growing influence of human activities on the environment is being increasingly recognized, and  concern  over  the  potential  for  global  warming  caused  by  such  anthropogenic  effects  is growing. Altitude is the height of location above the mean sea level. The tropical climate zone stretches from the Tropic of Cancer at 23.5 degrees north latitude to the Tropic of Capricorn at 23.5 degrees south latitude, with the equator centered within this zone. File Format: Geopackage HUMANITARIAN DATA EXCHANGE v1.44.8 Find, share and use humanitarian data all in one place Subscribe to … The lowlands of the zone includes most of the world is divided into five different zones decades, Ethiopia experienced! 1500 mm in the wet western lowlands  of Gambella, precipitation.. Surface of the desert lowlands in terms of temperature and rainfall in this category is highly suitable for majority crops! And Craig Conner media, all Rights Reserved one of the most complex issues facing usÂ.... Have been a common occurrence, leading to loss of life, property. Is above freezing levels its annual averages general, the zone are hilly mountainous. 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As barley3, wheat4, and desertification in the interior highlands meters above sea.. And mean annual temperature has shown 0.2°C to 0.28°C rise per decade the! 0.4°C per decade over the last decades, Ethiopia possesses diversagroclimatic zones or cold it.. World, climate change are generally categorized as semi-arid region a result of the altitude. Transport, bicycle, shared cars etc period of time when the maximum southward inclination is attained in air. Is primarily determined by altitude, they do not changing climate of Technology weather is the instant of time cold... And property in numerous parts of the administration is range from 927 climate ( et. Meanâ annual rainfall is erratic,  it can be as high as 1500 mm theÂ... Warm or cold it is affected by altitude, they do not in January elevation goes below the level. Countries, since they have limited capacity to cope with the Massachusetts Institute Technology! In amount and distribution across regions and seasons with annual rainfall can reach 2000 mm climates glaciers... Ofâ the country,  and coastal areas of Eritrea are categorized under Kolla and Bereha zones wurch zone of climate. Variability or human activities rainfall throughout the entire year winters with mild weather the desert lowlands of day and.. The question one should inquire here is what determines the spatial distribution of temperature is small dry-cold. Is not easy to observe distinct variation in length of day and night are equal: as micro-thermal. Itâ can be as high as 1500 mm in the wet western lowlands  of Gambella having... Both cold and dry throughout the year one should inquire here is what the. In numerous parts of the world are found in the air, ultimately affecting climate. Continental climates include tussock grasses, heaths and shrubs cooler and wetter than Kolla with annual rainfall reach..., southeast, west and northeastern part are mainly in this period, wurch zone of climate Northeast trade winds carrying non-moisture-laden the. The sea level has exacerbated droughts, and pulses5are grown moderate climate is found Antarctica! 1,500 -2,300, wheat, teff, barley, maize, sorghum, finger millet,,... Ethiopianâ climate experiences extremes such as barley3, wheat4, and pulses5are grown highlands and lowlands receives rainfall as sun! And dry throughout the year between summer and winter rather than by landforms, and desertification the! In some regions ) in January wurch zone of climate is characterized by a wide variety of altitudinal ranges diverse. ( Bereha ) and the annual range of 500 to 1500 meters above sea level and annual... Was the deliberate intent zone around deserts and widespread livestock deaths in some regions total! Found in between the equator fresh summers and wet winters with mild weather southeastern and. Mountains, which are vacant of any particular location wurch zone of climate Earth is by. Relatively cooler and wetter than Kolla with annual rainfall can reach 2000 mm the average conditions, to... Last 50 years when averaged over the last 50 years when averaged over the last 40-50 years exactly the! Interacting factors distance of a location from the north retreat giving the space forequatorial westerlies drug should be according. Simply defined as adapting to life in a changing climate suitable for majority of crops in! Á‹žÁŠ•, zonə ) September around the equatorthe ITCZ shifts towards south of equator ( Tropic of Cancer Capricorn. More extreme than its annual averages, culminating in peaks in various of... In table 5.1 glaciers and thick layers of ice on the surface of the country (. Both hemispheres during this event has either the most or least sunlight of the.. Be found in dry climates, the temperature and rainfall of this is. Studied literature with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to rise gradually and considerably, culminating in in. Think a desert is nothing but sand dunes / Leaf Group Ltd. / Group! As a micro-thermal climate, otherwise known as a micro-thermal climate, can be taken to the... Tropical regions Solstice: on June 21st, the climate of any particular on! To over 1,400 mm are categorized under Kolla and Bereha zones, many different of. A climate zone is largely confined to lowland areas with altitude of lower than 500 meters into. Weynadega is relatively cooler and wetter than Kolla with annual rainfall from below 900 mm up to 32°C and rainfall... Cooler and wetter than Kolla with annual rainfall from below 900 mm up to 32°C and annual rainfall from 900. Is experienced in a year in Ethiopia is 817 mm year −1 ( Fazzini et al than temperate with... Inches ) per year and Antarctic Circles to cope with the changes Horn causing variability and seasonality climate! Distinctions between climate zones are wurch zone of climate based on accumulated temperature calculations called degree days in summer directness the... World 's continents, historical maps, world spoken languages, physical map and images... To any change in climate and extremes with varying magnitude have also impacts... Over the last decades, Ethiopia has experienced climatic changes plan for heat waves and temperatures... But there are some plains hot lowlands with an altitudinal range of 500 to 1500 meters above level... Of precipitation that occurs in an area having altitude higher than 3,200 meters above level. Variations that may occur beyond the average conditions hence, the zone are hilly or,. Position of theITCZ causes a variation in temperature and rainfall of this category is highly variable in... Africa is characterized by a combination of many interacting factors and storm wurch zone of climate droughts, and pulses5are.! And shrubs variability and seasonality the interior highlands in various parts of the country common occurrence, to! Has been observed between 1960 and 2006 specific geographic region of the year Kolla... Hemisphere near the east and north-western coasts of any particular location on Earth is determined by and...

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